On the Attribution Theory + 원인지각의 원리( Attribution Theory ) , 연구 영역 및 방법
김성옥 Seong Oh Kim
DOI: JANTVol.1(No.2) 3-12, 1990
The characteristcs of children`s motor performance are slow response, low accuracy, greater var iability, inappropriate response, and ignoring KR when they perform at will. Not only physical growth, development, and maturation but also information processing capacity results in children`s motor performance deficits. In the late 1970s, motor development theorists accepted information processing model to explain the motor performance differences between adults and children. they try to clarify that whether the performance differences are due to structure(capacity) or function (control process) . To date, many researches show that the performance differnces result from children`s lack of control process rather than children`s small capacity. Children do not know how to lable the incoming information, how to rehearse to memorize the information in the long-term store, and how to organize the information already existed in their memory effectively, However, if children have enough information about specific task, they spontaneously develop adult-like memory strategy. This facts are due to their great knowledge base. Therefore, even though their sophisticated memory strategy can not compensate all their motor deficits, the role of teachers and coaches is to give children various movement experiences making their knowledge base bigger.Attribution theorists conceptualize causal ascription, the perceived causes of previous performance, as a major sources of achievement motivation. Therefore, they focus their interest on searching for the causes of events. For any given situation, however, their may be an infinite number of potential reasons why a particular event ocurrs. Many attribution theorists nowadays generally clasify these causes along three causal dimensions (internality, stability, and controllability) . They believe that individuals understand the causes and give meaning them on the basis of these dimensions. Attribution theory deals with two main areas : antecedents of attribution and the consequences of attribution. In sport-related areas, win or lose-attribution link has been the most studied of the two. In order to be a firmly established theory and to be utilized in achievement situation, further research in attribution framework is required in attribution. consequence link and in antecedent-attribution link also in addition to win or lose-antecedent link.
Information Processing Capacity and Motor Development + 정보처리 역량과 운동발달
윤정숙 Jeong Sook Yoon
DOI: JANTVol.1(No.2) 13-20, 1990
The characteristcs of children`s motor performance are slow response, low accuracy, greater var iability, inappropriate response, and ignoring KR when they perform at will. Not only physical growth, development, and maturation but also information processing capacity results in children`s motor performance deficits. In the late 1970s, motor development theorists accepted information processing model to explain the motor performance differences between adults and children. they try to clarify that whether the performance differences are due to structure(capacity) or function (control process) . To date, many researches show that the performance differnces result from children`s lack of control process rather than children`s small capacity. Children do not know how to lable the incoming information, how to rehearse to memorize the information in the long-term store, and how to organize the information already existed in their memory effectively, However, if children have enough information about specific task, they spontaneously develop adult-like memory strategy. This facts are due to their great knowledge base. Therefore, even though their sophisticated memory strategy can not compensate all their motor deficits, the role of teachers and coaches is to give children various movement experiences making their knowledge base bigger.
Space-Timing Variability in Rapid Arm Movement + 팔운동의 공간 가변성과 시간 가변성
정청희 Chung Hee Chung
DOI: JANTVol.1(No.2) 21-30, 1990
There have been increasing efforts to find the source of motor response error variability and to apply this information for the efficiency of human activity in real life. The purpose of this study was to examine of movement amplitude and movement time, and movement velocity on the space-timing variability. Subjects(6 male student) engaged in an angular timing task at four different movement times(150, 200, 250 and 300 msec) over four movement ranges, respectively, Movement velocity were 50, 120, 180, 240, 300, 400 deg/sec. The result indicated that first, spatial variability increased and timing variability decreased as amplitude increased in all movement times, but spatial variability decreased and timing variability increased as movement time increased in all movement amplitude. Spatial variability was changed linearly with increment of movement amplitudes and movement times, and timing variability was changed linearly with increment of movement amplitude. But timing variability was changed curvilinearly with increment of movement time. Second, spatial variability increased and timing variability decreased as movemnt velocity increased, and response variability changed curvilinearly with increment of velocity. These results suggest that movement amplitude, movement time and movement velocity are parameters of response variability.
Temporal Structure of Acceleration-Time Function in Rapid Arm Movement + 빠른 운동에 있어서의 가속도-시간 패턴의 시간적 구조
정청희 , 허정식 Chung Hee Chung , Chung Sik Her
DOI: JANTVol.1(No.2) 31-39, 1990
The purpose of this study was to find the effect of the two different types of movement velocity control on timing variability and temporal structure parameters (time to peak positive acceleration, duration of positive acceleration, peak positive acceleration) of acceleration-time function. Subjects were 6 male students, and task was arm flexion movement. The results showed that when movement distance increased with movement time fixed, timing variability was constant, also time to peak positive acceleration and duration of positive acceleration were constant, but peak positive acceleration increased with statistical significance. And when movement time increased with movement distance fixed, timing variability increased, and time to peak positive acceleration, duration of positive acceleration increased, but peak positive acceleration decreased. The results suggest that each control types of movement velocity are different fundamentally, and movement velocity as a function of movement distance is achieved by the increase of peak positive acceleration with time to positive acceleration and duration of positive acceleration constant. Namely, this type of velocity is modulated by the change of force with phasing of generalized motor program, and movement velocity as a function of movement time is achieved by the extension of time to peak positive acceleration and duration of positive acceleration, Thus, this type of movement velocity is modulated by the change of phasing and relative force generalized motor program.
Internal Representation of Motor Programs on Bilateral Transfer Learning + 양측성 전이학습에 관한 운동프로그램의 내적표상
김진환 Jin Hwan Kim
DOI: JANTVol.1(No.2) 40-50, 1990
This study investigated the effects of different sequence structures on the bilateral transfer of learning from one sequence to another. Subjects were asked to respond to visual stimulus of "x" mark appeared in a particular sequence on the CRT at one of four locations arranged horizontally. They were instructed to respond to the visual signal by pressing the corresponding keys with their four fingers. After practicing one serial pattern for a substantial period of time with one hand, the subjects were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and a control condition [ hierarchy (n=6) , vs , linear (n=6) , control (n=6) ] . Reaction time and latency profile constituted the dependent variables and learning of the sequence was evaluated by measuring the amount of facilitation of the performance on the transfer tasks. The findings support the notion that the internal representation of a sequence organiges in hierarchically, rather than linearly and the executionin of movement sequence is controlled hieararchically even though different effector(different hand in this study) . In addition, the results provided strong evidence for the notion that the subunits of movement can be interchangeable once subjects establish interval structure of the sequence.
The Effects of Movement Time and Types of KR on Motor Learning + 동작시간과 결과지식의 유형에 따른 운동학습효과
김상규 Sang Gyu Kim
DOI: JANTVol.1(No.2) 51-68, 1990
The purpose of this research is to find the effect of motor learning if quantitative knowledge of results and qualitative knowledge of results are presented according to task natures. As the experimental method, I execute a kind of linear positioning task adopting 36 college students as objects of this study. After measuring movement time and distant error using a touch pad adhered a circuit and a programmed personal computer system, I calculate the mean of distant error and standard deviation. I come to get these results as followings to perform factorial ANOVA with repeated measures providing a basis for this computation. The task natures and forms of knowledge of results have not influences on the effect of motor learning. The performance effect according to task natures makes a meaningful difference, that is students show high accuracy of motion when they have enough time to perform the task voluntarily than under the condition that they have to do the task as soon as possible.
The Influence on the Motor Skill Learning for Accuracy of the KR and the Post-KR Interval + 결과지식의 정확성과 결과지식 후 간격이 운동기능 학습에 미치는 영향
표내숙 , 박종태 Nae Sook Pyo , Jong Tae Park
DOI: JANTVol.1(No.2) 69-74, 1990
We could say that the knowledge of results is very important factors in the motor skill learning. This paper was analyzed to stipulate how inside-kick of soccer affect to perform when we present the accuracy of the knowledge of results and post-knowledge of results interval. I randomly selected 60 students in the Hakjin elementary school in Busan, and divided 6 groups. The results were as follows. 1. The qualitative and quantitative knowledge of results in the early motor learning stages were not significant difference in each other of the exercise and the transfer performance. 2. When we tried various time interval of the post-knowledge of results interval in the early motor learning stages, there was very significant difference at P=0.05 level in transfer performance . 3. There was no significant between the accuracy of the knowledge of results and post-knowleclge of results in interaction effects. 4. The most effectively performed group in this experiment was as the quantitative knowledge of results who performed 6 seconds of post-knowledge of results interval ,
A Study on the Measurement of Athletes' Stress (1) + 운동선수들의 스트레스 척도 제작에 관한 연구 (1)
이계윤 Kae Yun Lee
DOI: JANTVol.1(No.2) 75-88, 1990
This paper aims at creating the measurement of athletes` stress. About 340 athletes attending high schools or universities were selected as the subjects for the purpose of this study, but 316 of them were the real subjects for the ultimately operated data on the factors causing stress. Questionaires adapted from Competitive State Anxiety Inventory(CSAI) designed by Martens, Burton, Rivkin and Siman were used to put Competitive Anxiety Factor to the test ; questionaires included in Sports Cohesion Instrument (SCI) developed by Yukelson, Weinberg and Jackson were used to test Team Cohesion Factor ; questionaires presented in A Study on the Measurement of Job Stress (I) by Lee Jong-mok and Park.Han-ki were modified to be suitable for athletes and used to test communication factor and family factor. 54 questions were selected out of preliminary questionaires for testing the above -mentioned factors, and principal component factor was analyzed by means of Pearson correlation coefficient matrix on the basis of the responses to 54 questions. As a result, 12 factors and variable quantities that they could take turned out to be 60.20% . 47 questions, which had more than .30 as each factor loading in 12 factors, were selected out of 54. questions as a resultof Uarimax Rotated Factor Analysis of these 12 factors. The selected 12 factors game, counsel, sports-external disturbance, team cohesion, athletic sports, communication, training, spectators. We suggest that athletes undergo stress while they are under situations-competitive or ordinary-concerned with these 12 factors.